Wide varieties of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents exist for clinical use, and the number is increasing rapidly. Some of these agents have a narrow therapeutic window, and others do not have any agent to reverse the anticoagulant or antiplatelet effect. Therefore, there is a significant clinical need to determine if the anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent is being used at the appropriate dose or if one or more of these agents is still active in the circulation. This presentation will describe the antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants that are currently in use, including aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists, warfarin, heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, fondaparinux, argatroban, lepirudin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Faculty will discuss the actions and indications of each drug and will provide a more detailed description of options for monitoring the concentration and/or effect of the compound.