Nationally, toxicology programs have evolved from a
traditional exploration of the chemistry and applied toxicity of chemicals and
drugs to a more comprehensive study of toxicology and toxicology testing as
independent entities. Consequently, the second edition of Principles of
Toxicology Testing starts with basic toxicological principles, including
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of toxins, including
chemicals and drugs. The book then continues with animal (in vivo) and in vitro
toxicology testing methods associated with toxicological analysis and
preclinical drug development.
As in the first edition, the book begins with an introduction into the
fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare readers for the subsequent
topics and continues through with a discussion of toxicokinetics and human risk
assessment. This introductory material is useful in understanding the
applications of toxicology testing.
Section II describes the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in
animals in greater detail. This section describes acute toxicity studies as well
as subchronic and chronic studies performed on animals. Special emphasis is
placed on study design and determination of classical indicators for acute and
chronic testing, such as the LD50. The book examines other short- and long-term
animal toxicity testing methodologies, including dermal, ocular, and
reproductive toxicity testing. In addition, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity
studies are also discussed in separate chapters.
Section III introduces and discusses in vitro alternatives to animal
toxicology tests. This section emphasizes cell culture methodology and cellular
methods for acute systemic toxicity, target organ toxicity, and local toxicity.
The contributors present the advantages and disadvantages of alternative
methods. They also describe the use of high-throughput screening and its
applications, the concepts of standardization and validation of in vitro
techniques (especially large, organized validation efforts currently supported
by US and EU regulatory agencies), and the theories supporting the development
of in vitro methodologies.
This second edition is a must-read for undergraduate and graduate toxicology
students. Industrial and academic research centers will also find the text
useful for establishing a toxicology testing laboratory.