The source of reference values for the elderly. From a search of the literature, it is evident that reference values of older patients are usually intermixed with those of earlier ages. This book provides data specifically on the elderly. The values were derived from widely diverse but well-defined populations of independent individuals as well as those in institutions. Nearly 175 analytes are covered. Values were determined from body fluids, chiefly blood, plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluids, and urine, as well as from organ function tests such as clearance, and other commonly used ratios of values. Information is expressed predominantly as percentiles (5, 10, 50, 90, 95) for each group, and is presented in graphic and tabular form for ease of use.