A 54-year-old asymptomatic man with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)5 was found to have an extremely low serum cholesterol concentration. He had no history of major childhood illness, malabsorption, or any cardiovascular or neurologic dysfunction. He had smoked for 30 years and was not using alcohol or any lipid-lowering drugs. Additionally, he was not a vegetarian. His family history included stroke (father died at age 52 years) and chronic kidney disease (57-year-old brother). His eldest son had died of a suspected myocardial infarction at the age of 21 years.