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Author and Module Information

EDITORS-IN-CHIEF

Nader Rifai, PhD
Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School
Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac Chair in Laboratory Medicine
Director of Clinical Chemistry, Boston Children’s Hospital
Boston, MA, USA

Christina Ellervik, MD, PhD, DMSci
Assistant Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School
Associate Director of Clinical Chemistry, Boston Children’s Hospital
Boston, MA, USA
Associate Professor of Clinical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen, Denmark

Dr Ellervik disclosed compensation from Area9 (science advisory)

Download the AACC Learning Lab Brochure

MODULES

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

LABORATORY AUTOMATION
Author information
Joshua Hayden, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Describe considerations involved in laboratory automation such as requirements, performance metrics, and impact
  • Compare total laboratory and task-targeted automation
  • Describe automation for specimen identification, transport, processing, analysis, and post-analytic processing 

QUALITY CONTROL OF THE EXAMINATION PROCESS
Author information
Laura Parnas, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Discuss basic concepts in quality control in the clinical laboratory
  • Explain implementation of quality control procedures
  • Evaluate quality control parameters: charts and rules
  • Verify method performance with quality control
  • Monitor method performance
  • Discuss external quality assessment

CHROMATOGRAPHY
Author information
David S. Hage, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Describe general principles of chromatography
  • Describe general terms used to describe chromatography
  • Describe factors that affect separations and resolution in chromatography
  • Describe chromatography for chemical analysis
  • Describe gas chromatography
  • Describe liquid chromatography
  • Describe planar chromatography 

MASS SPECTROMETRY
Author information
Erin Kaleta, PhD, DABCC

Learning objectives

  • Describe basic concepts of mass spectrometry
  • Determine ionization sources
  • Describe mass analyzers
  • Describe tandem mass spectrometry
  • Identify scanning modes
  • Describe detectors
  • Identify sample introduction methods

POINT OF CARE TESTING
Author information
Ping Wang, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe advantages and disadvantages of POCT
  • Describe the roles of the POCT supervisor, director, coordinator, and operators
  • List common POCT analytes
  • Describe POCT regulations and oversight
  • Describe POCT quality management
  • Describe data management and connectivity of POCT methods
  • Describe POCT technology and instrumentation
  • Describe clinical applications of POCT

CALCULATIONS
Authors information
Allan C Deacon BSc, PhD, FRCPath
Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Perform basic calculations (unit conversions, dilutions, molarity, concentration)
  • Calculate mass, Molar, and Osmolal Quantities and Concentrations
  • Perform calculations for acid-base, pH, and buffers
  • Perform calculations for Spectrophotometry
  • Perform calculations for renal function
  • Perform calculations for pharmacokinetics
  • Perform calculations for body fluids and electrolytes
  • Perform calculations for osmolality
  • Perform calculations for enzymology
  • Perform calculations for titrations and recovery
  • Perform basic laboratory statistics

PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Author information
Danyel Tacker, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Outline basic principles in electrophoretic separation
  • Discuss indicated uses for protein electrophoresis tests
  • Interpret protein electrophoretic patterns in health and disease states
  • Describe major pitfalls in electrophoretic separation

SERUM ENZYMES
Authors information
Christopher McCudden, PhD, DABCC, NRCC, FAACC
Danyel Tacker, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe the basic structure and function of enzymes
  • Recognize different enzymes naming conventions and nomenclature
  • Discuss the methods to measure clinically relevant enzymes
  • Identify clinically relevant serum enzymes
  • Discuss how serum enzymes are used to diagnose and manage disease

TUMOR MARKERS
Author information
David Alter, MD, DABCC

Learning objectives

  • Identify general tumor marker principles
  • Describe tumor marker validation
  • Describe clinical applications of tumor markers
  • Determine tumor markers used in breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreas cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer and testicular cancer

VITAMIN D
Author information
Nicole V. Tolan, PhD, DABCC

Learning objectives

  • Describe the biochemistry of vitamin D
  • Describe major sources of preanalytical and analytical error in vitamin D testing
  • Understand methodologies used for vitamin D testing and their limitations
  • Interpret vitamin D results 

VITAMINS
Authors information
Rav Sodi, PhD, CSci, EuSpLM, FRCPath
Lynn A. Brunelle, PhD, DABCC
Nicole V. Tolan, PhD, DABCC

Learning objectives

  • Classify vitamins based on solubility in water or fat
  • Recall common and chemical names and structure of all major vitamins
  • List common food sources of the vitamins
  • Describe the absorption, metabolism and functions of vitamins in the body
  • Describe classic diseases related to vitamin deficiency and their biochemical investigations
  • Describe vitamin toxicity and how to investigate this
  • List analytical principles for vitamins 

METALS: TRACE AND TOXIC
Author information
Paul J. Jannetto, PhD, DABCC, FAACC, MT (ASCP)

Learning objectives

  • Recognize the common clinical signs and symptoms of deficiency or toxicity to essential, non- essential, and heavy elements
  • Identify the appropriate laboratory test/specimen matrix which should be ordered/collected to assess for elemental exposure or toxicity
  • Correctly interpret the elemental laboratory test results and suggest appropriate follow-up testing or care
  • Identify common sources of exposure to various elements

THERAPEUTIC DRUG MANAGEMENT I
Author information
Christine Snozek, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Understand the rationale for therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Describe the principles of pharmacokinetics
  • Describe the preanalytical and analytical factors affecting drug measurement

THERAPEUTIC DRUGS MANAGEMENT II
Author information
Christine Snozek, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe basic concepts of TDM
  • Describe TDM for immunosuppressive agents
  • Describe TDM for antiepileptic drugs
  • Describe TDM for psychiatric therapies
  • Describe TDM for antimicrobial agents
  • Describe TDM for pain management drugs
  • Describe TDM for antineoplastic drugs
  • Describe TDM for cardioactive drugs
  • Describe TDM for monoclonal antibodies
  • Describe TDM for bronchodilators

CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY: DRUGS OF ABUSE
Author information
Shannon Haymond, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Differentiate between forensic and therapeutic screening
  • Recall general legal regulations of drug screening
  • Describe and compare specimen types
  • Describe general principles for analytical methods of drug screening
  • Describe and interpret analytical methods for the following drugs of abuse: Acetaminophen, benzodiazepine, PCP, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, barbiturates

BODY FLUIDS
Author information
Darci R. Block, PhD, DABCC

Learning objectives

  • Differentiate between standard and non-standard body fluids
  • Describe collection and handling of various body fluids
  • Describe anatomy, production, and composition of various body fluids in physiological and disease states
  • Describe clinical utility of various analytes in various body fluids
  • Interpret results from measurements of analytes in various body fluids
  • Understand the following fluids: serous, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, synovial, amniotic, cerebrospinal

ADRENAL CORTEX
Author information
Roger L. Bertholf, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Identify adrenal anatomy
  • Describe adrenal steroids
  • Describe adrenal insufficiency
  • Describe adrenal hormone excess
  • Determine laboratory measurement of hormones associated with adrenal function
  • Describe dynamic tests of adrenal function

THYROID
Author information
Robert Nerenz, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Understand basic pathophysiology of the thyroid gland
  • Describe basic biochemistry of the thyroid
  • Describe major sources of preanalytical and analytical error in thyroid testing
  • Understand analytical principles used for thyroid function testing
  • Interpret thyroid function testing results

DIABETES MELLITUS
Author information
Roa Harb, MD

Learning objectives

  • Identify classification of diabetes
  • Describe gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
  • Describe albuminuria, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, glycated serum proteins, ketone bodies
  • Understand measurement of insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide
  • Describe the effects of hormones on glucose metabolism
  • Understand the autoimmune antibodies
  • Describe the complications of diabetes

KIDNEY FUNCTION
Author information
Joe M. El-Khoury, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe urine macroscopic, microscopic, qualitative and quantitative analysis
  • Describe quantitative assessment of total protein, albumin, bence-jones protein, myoglobin
  • Describe the biochemistry, physiologic characteristics, and analytical methods for commonly used biomarkers for chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury
  • Describe various measures of kidney function
  • Describe and compare measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • Define, classify, and describe the chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury 

DISORDERS OF WATER, ELECTROLYTES AND ACID-BASE METABOLISM
Author information
Brenda Suh-Lailam, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Recall the compartments of body water and composition of body fluids
  • Describe electrolyte disorders associated with sodium, potassium and chloride
  • Describe and evaluate laboratory findings in electrolyte disorders
  • Identify the causes of electrolyte disorders
  • Describe the differential diagnosis of electrolyte disorders
  • Recall use of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in acid-base status evaluation
  • Describe the role of buffer systems in regulating the pH of body fluids
  • Describe the respiratory mechanism in the regulation of acid-base balance
  • Describe the renal mechanisms in the regulation of acid-base balance
  • Describe the primary acid-base disorders
  • Identify the causes for acid-base disorders
  • Describe and evaluate laboratory findings in acid-base disorders
  • Describe the compensatory responses in acid-base disorders
  • Assess the adequacy of compensation in acid-base disorders

LIVER DISEASE
Author information
Paul Johnson, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Describe micro- and macroscopic anatomical findings of the liver
  • Describe biochemical functions of the liver
  • Describe clinical features of various liver diseases
  • Describe pre-analytical and biological variation of liver biomarkers
  • Describe analytical principles for measurement of liver biomarkers
  • Describe inherited conditions of liver disease
  • Describe hepatobiliary disease
  • Describe hepatocellular disease
  • Describe hepatocellular carcinoma

THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS
Author information
Mark Albert Marzinke, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe the cytoarchitecture of the pancreas
  • Recall the digestive enzymes synthesized, stored, and secreted by the pancreas
  • Identify the components of pancreatic fluid, and its role in downstream digestion
  • Recognize the importance of pH in pancreatic enzyme activity
  • Describe how amylase and lipase are measured in the clinical laboratory setting
  • Stratify invasive and noninvasive tests to assess pancreatic function
  • Detail how laboratory tests can be used in the differential diagnosis of pancreatitis
  • Compare and contrast clinical presentation and laboratory findings associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis 

Modules under development
Basic Laboratory Analytical Techniques
Biological and Preanalytical Variability
Cardiac Biomarkers
Inborn Errors of Metabolism I
Inborn Errors of Metabolism II
Inborn Errors of Metabolism III
Laboratory Safety
Lipids and Lipoproteins
Nutrition
Pituitary Function and Pathophysiology
Proteomics
Statistical Methodologies in Laboratory Medicine

Modules to be developed
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Catecholamines and Serotonin
Pregnancy and its Disorders
Reproductive Endocrinology

TRANSFUSION MEDICINE

BLOOD GROUPS AND PRE-TRANSFUSION TESTING
Authors information
Karen Quillen, MD, MPH
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Detail the pretransfusion compatibility tests required prior to blood product transfusion
  • Detail the different types of red blood cell crossmatch available and benefits of each
  • Discuss the importance of the ABO blood groups system and know the red blood cell and plasma compatibility charts for transfusion
  • Explain why the Rh blood group system is so immunogenic
  • Detail the most clinically relevant facts of the Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group systems
  • Discuss the importance of specialized (Rh and Kell) matching prior to transfusion in patients with sickle cell anemia
  • Discuss the results of failing to detect a clinically significant red cell alloantibody prior to transfusion of red blood cells 

RED BLOOD CELL TRANSFUSION

Author information
Edward Yoon, MD

Learning objectives

  • Red Blood Cell Donation
  • Storage of Red Blood Cells
  • Red Blood Cell Preservative Solutions
  • Age of Transfused Red Blood Cells
  • ABO Blood Groups and RhD for Red Blood Cells
  • Unexpected Antibodies for Red Blood Cells
  • Leukoreduction and Irradiation of Red Blood Cells
  • CMV Safety for Red Blood Cells
  • Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin S
  • Adult and Pediatric Transfusion of Red Blood Cells
  • Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions following Red Blood Cell Transfusion

PLATELET TRANSFUSION
Author information
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe the platelet products currently available for transfusion in the United States
  • Detail the particular storage conditions and shelf-life that make platelets a very limited resource
  • Reveal the clinical benefits of prestorage leukoreduction and irradiation of platelets
  • Discuss the platelet transfusion thresholds in adults that have been published by the AABB (formerly the American Association of Blood Banks)
  • Explain the platelet transfusion thresholds in the pediatric population
  • Detail the contraindications to platelet transfusion
  • Describe the immune and non-immune causes of platelet refractoriness
  • Detail the laboratory evaluation for platelet refractoriness
  • Discuss the management of the thrombocytopenic patient with alloimmune platelet refractoriness due to HLA antibodies

PLASMA PRODUCTS AND DERIVATIVES
Author information
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Detail the various plasma products available in the United States for transfusion
  • Detail the indications for plasma transfusion in adult and pediatric patients
  • Discuss the dosing of plasma products in adult and pediatric patients when used to correct multiple factor deficiencies
  • Discuss the indications for cryoprecipitate transfusion in adult and pediatric patients
  • Detail how cryoprecipitate is processed from whole blood collections
  • Explain how cryoprecipitate is dosed when used for fibrinogen replacement in adult and pediatric patients
  • Discuss the clinical indications for infusion of the most common plasma derivatives to include albumin, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), prothrombin complex concentrates, antithrombin III, von WIllebrand factor, and fibrinogen concentrate

HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN
Author information
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Discuss the pathophysiology of HDFN and which patients are most at risk for HDFN
  • Describe the usual ABO groups involved in HDFN due to ABO antibodies and the difference between ABO HDFN and HDFN from other IgG antibodies
  • Describe the critical titer of anti-D as it pertains to HDFN
  • Detail the history of Rh immune globulin, its clinical utility, its mechanism of action, how it is dose and when it should be given to women at risk of HDFN due to anti-D
  • Discuss the methodology and indications for the rosette test, the Kleihauer-Betke test and flow cytometry in assessing for fetomaternal hemorrhage
  • Discuss whether women with weak D and partial D mutations are candidates for Rh immune globulin
  • Explain why anti-K HDFN differs from all other types of HDFN and how one would monitor the at-risk patient
  • Discuss when and how an antibody titration procedure is performed in a pregnant woman
  • Describe the clinical presentation of HDFN
  • Detail the antenatal management of pregnancies at risk for HDFN including the use of middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasonography, fetal blood sampling, and intrauterine transfusion
  • Describe the post-delivery management of neonates afflicted with HDFN including the use of neonatal intravenous immunoglobulin, phototherapy, and red cell exchange transfusion

ACUTE TRANSFUSION REACTION
Author information
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs)
  • Describe febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs)
  • Identify allergic transfusion reactions including anaphylactic reactions
  • Understand transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO); dyspnea (TAD) and related acute lung injury (TRALI)
  • Describe septic, hypotensive and rare acute transfusion reactions
  • Investigate acute transfusion reactions
  • Understand fatality reporting requirements

THERAPEUTIC APHERESIS
Author information
Edward Yoon, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe basic principles of apheresis technology
  • Detail replacement fluids and anticoagulation
  • Identify current guidelines for therapeutic apheresis
  • Understand periprocedural clinical considerations
  • Know plasma exchange (plasmapheresis)
  • Explain plasma exchange in idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  • Understand plasma exchange in Myasthenia Gravis
  • Describe red cell exchange (Erythrocytapheresis)
  • Describe red cell exchange in sickle cell disease
  • Identify white blood cell depletion (Leukocytapheresis)
  • Identify platelet depletion (Thrombocytapheresis)

DELAYED TRANSFUSION REACTIONS
Author information
Kerry O'Brien, MD

Learning objectives

  • Explain delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTR)
  • Explain delayed serologic transfusion reactions (DSTR)
  • Describe transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD)
  • Understand post-transfusion purpura (PTP)
  • Identify transfusion transmitted infections (TTI)
  • Describe iron overload 

Modules under development
Plasma Components and Derivatives

Modules to be developed
Blood Donation
Transfusion Support for Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplantation

LABORATORY GENOMICS

NUCLEIC ACID ISOLATION
Author information
Linnea Baudhuin, PhD, FACMG

Learning objectives

  • Recall the major steps involved in nucleic acid isolation
  • Discuss overcoming issues with difficult sample types during nucleic acid isolation
  • Detail different reagents and approaches involved with cell lysis and nucleic acid separation
  • Compare similarities and differences between DNA and RNA extraction
  • Describe different types of liquid phase nucleic acid extraction
  • Recall details about the different methods for solid phase nucleic acid extraction
  • Discuss measurement and optimization of nucleic acid quantity and quality

NUCLEIC ACID TECHNIQUES
Author information
Christine Schmotzer, MD

Learning objectives

  • Identify enzymes used in nucleic acid methods
  • Describe nucleic acid treatments not involving enzymes
  • Describe amplification and PCR basics
  • Describe real-time PCR
  • Describe PCR variants and non-PCR amplification techniques
  • Describe quality assurance for nucleic acid techniques

CYTOGENOMICS
Authors information
Anne B.S. Giersch, PhD, FACMG
Heather Mason-Suares, PhD, FACMG

Learning objectives

  • Describe chromosomes
  • Describe cytogenetics
  • Explain numerical chromosome abnormalities
  • Explain structural chromosome abnormalities
  • Explain sex chromosome abnormalities
  • Describe cytogenetics techniques: Karotype, FISH, Chromosomal Microarray
  • Explain cytogenetic nomenclature

CONCEPTS OF MENDELIAN INHERITED DISORDERS
Author information
Ann Moyer, MD, PhD

Learning objectives

  • Recall definitions of basic terms used in genetics
  • Recognize inheritance patterns of common Mendelian disorders
  • Compare and contrast inheritance patterns
  • Determine which inheritance pattern is most likely based on a pedigree
  • Review clinical and genetic characteristics of common Mendelian disorders
  • Describe the process of X-inactivation and its implications
  • Demonstrate knowledge of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Bayes Theorem

HEREDITARY NEURONAL AND MUSCULAR DISORDERS
Author information
Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Describe the pathogenesis of neuronal genetic disorders related to copper and iron dysregulation
  • Explain genetic consequences of mutations that lead to neurometabolic disorders
  • Identify genetic lesions that lead to different muscular dystrophies and their phenotypic consequences

INHERITED CANCERS I: MECHANISMS AND GENETIC INSTABILITY SYNDROMES
Author information
Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC

Learning objectives

  • List characteristics of inherited cancers that differentiate them from sporadic cancers
  • Describe epigenetic changes that can lead to inherited cancers
  • Explain roles for caretaker and gatekeeper genes in the pathogenesis of inherited cancers.

INHERITED CANCERS II: DOMINANT INHERITANCE MODELS OF CANCER SYNDROMES
Author information
Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Discuss how dominant inheritance models of cancer syndromes can be used for risk assessment and prognosis determination
  • Identify common mutation and mutation hot-spots for inherited cancers
  • Differentiate among various inherited cancer syndromes in terms of phenotypic presentations and disease course

PHARMACOGENETICS
Author information
Hoi-Ying (Elsie) Yu, PhD, DABCC, FAACC

Learning objectives

  • Identify different types of pharmacogenetic targets and understand how medications can be affected by genes
  • Recall the specific role of pharmacogenetics in certain cancer treatments
  • Define the specific roles of pharmacogenetics in pain management
  • Recall details about cardiovascular-related pharmacogenetics
  • Describe examples for psychiatry-related pharmacogenetics
  • Describe HLA genes that impact drug hypersensitivity
  • Recall clinical benefits and limitations of pharmacogenetic testing

CELL-FREE DNA IN PRENATAL SCREENING
Author information
Christina Lockwood, PhD, DABCC, DABMGG

Learning objectives

  • Understand the biological sources of cell-free DNA
  • Recognize the technologies available for cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Describe the clinical utility of cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Know the general performance characteristics for cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy tests (sensitivity, positive predictive value, etc.)
  • Identify challenges associated with cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Compare cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening with traditional prenatal screening
  • Understand that incidental findings may arise from cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • List future applications of cell-free DNA in prenatal tests

Modules under development
Genomes and Variants
Genomics of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Malignancies
Hereditary Neurodegenerative and Neurodevelopment Disorders
Hereditary Renal Disorders
Mitochondrial Genetics
Molecular Immunology
Non-Mendelian Disorders
Quantitative and Computational Approaches to Genomic Interpretation
Sequencing-based Techniques
Solid Tumor Genomics
Foundational Molecular Biology

Modules to be developed
Blood-based Cancer Detection: Liquid Biopsy

MICROBIOLOGY

MYCOBACTERIA AND DIAGNOSTICS
Author information
Derrick Chen, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe general microbiological characteristics of mycobacteria and how they differ from other bacteria
  • Review different staining methods that are used to microscopically visualize mycobacteria
  • Understand which specimen types may be used for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection
  • Know how mycobacteria are cultured, including unique processing and safety requirements
  • Determine how mycobacteria are identified using phenotypic and molecular methods
  • Identify uses and limitations of immunological and antigen tests
  • Summarize antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycobacteria

FUNGAL DIAGNOSTICS
Author information
Ingibjörg Hilmarsdottir, MD

Learning objectives

  • List the main fungal pathogens found in different clinical specimen types
  • Describe specimen processing, stains and culture conditions for the detection of fungi from clinical specimens
  • Identify yeasts, molds, dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi as they appear in clinical specimens
  • Describe how to identify fungi from cultures by the use of secondary culture media, culture conditions, biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF MS
  • Recall the principles of molecular detection and identification of fungi
  • Identify optimal diagnostic methods for infections due to yeasts, filamentous and dimorphic fungi

FUNGI
Author information
Ingibjörg Hilmarsdottir, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe basic morphological features of fungi and their modes of conidiogenesis
  • Understand the difference between taxonomic and descriptive groups of fungi and the existence of cryptic fungal species
  • Describe macro- and microscopic features of yeasts
  • Describe macro- and microscopic features of hyaline and melanized septate molds
  • Describe macro- and microscopic features of dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi
  • Describe macro- and microscopic features of pauciseptate molds
  • Describe the principal characteristics and staining properties of microsporidia and Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Recall the natural reservoirs, ecologic groups and geographic distribution of the main fungal pathogens

VIRAL DIAGNOSTICS
Author information
Blake W. Buchan, PhD, D(ABMM)

Learning objectives

  • Describe basics of viral nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • Understand respiratory virus testing and interpretation
  • Understand sexually transmitted virus testing and interpretation
  • Describe viral testing and interpretation in immunocompromised patients
  • Describe viral gastroenteritis, meningitis and hepatitis testing and interpretation
  • Describe viruses associated with Febrile Syndrome including hemorrhagic fever
  • Identify vaccine preventable viral syndromes
  • Understand antiviral resistance testing

PARASITIC DIAGNOSTICS
Authors information
Marc Roger Couturier, PhD, D(ABMM)
Blaine Mathison, BS, M(ASCP)

Learning objectives

  • Understand specimen collection, transport and staining
  • Describe blood parasite identification
  • Identify intestinal protozoa and microsporidia
  • Identify arthropod ectoparasite
  • Identify nematode and other structurally similar organism
  • Identify flatworm (Trematode/Cestode)
  • Describe non-morphological detection methods and cultures for parasites
  • Identify parasites found in large organs, tissue, or other body fluids

Modules under development
Antifungals
Bacterial Infections
Biosafety 
Fungal Infections
Mycobacterial Infections and Antimycobacterials
Parasites
Parasitic Infections and Antiparasitics
Viruses
Viral infections and Antivirals

Modules to be developed
Antibacterials
Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Bacteria
Bacterial Diagnostics
Infection Surveillance
Infectious Syndromes
Laboratory Management

HEMATOLOGY AND COAGULATION

FLOW CYTOMETRY
Author information
Fiona Craig, MD

Learning objectives

  • Describe the principles of flow cytometry, including the components of a flow cytometric evaluation, the characteristics of fluorochromes, the parameters collected, data display and analysis.
  • List the immunophenotype of normal hematopoietic and lymphoid cells, including B-cells, T-cells, plasma cells, monocytes, and maturing myeloid cells.
  • Describe immunophenotypic abnormalities associated with neoplasms of hematopoietic and lymphoid cells, and how they can be used to diagnose disease and detect minimal residual disease following therapy.
  • List the immunophenotype associated with neoplasms of mature B- and T-cells, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, high-grade B-cell lymphomas, lymphoma with plasmablastic differentiation, plasma cell myeloma, T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, Sezary syndrome, angioimmunoblastic T-cells lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
  • Discuss the role of flow cytometry in the evaluation for hematopoietic neoplasms, B- and T-lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute undifferentiated leukemia, mixed phenotype leukemia, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Modules under development
Laboratory diagnosis of disorders of bleeding and thrombosis including platelets
Lymph node pathology: normal, reactive, malignant and metastatic
Myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and hybrid disorders
Normal and abnormal peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology

Modules to be developed
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Anemia (Microcytic/Normocytic/Macrocytic and Hemolytic/Hypoproliferative)
Automated Hematology and General Approach to the Peripheral Blood Smear
Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics of Hematolymphoid Disorders, both Benign and Malignant
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis/HPLC
Hemoglobinopathies, Thalassemias, and RBC Cytoskeletal and Enzyme Defects
Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Disorders (not just Neoplasms)
Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Associated with Primary and Iatrogenic Immune Deficiency
Mature B-Cell Neoplasms
Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Neoplasms
Precursor Lymphoid Neoplasms (B and T Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma)
Spleen and Thymus: Neglected Organs in Hematopathology
White Blood Cell Abnormalities (Quantitative and Qualitative)

CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY

Modules to be developed
Allergic Disease
Monoclonal Gammopathies
Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases
Primary Immunodeficiencies
Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

AUTHORS

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

David Alter, MD, DABCC
Clinical Professor of Pathology MSU-CHM
Clinical/Chemical Pathologist
Spectrum Health Regional Laboratory
Grand Rapids, MI, USA

Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FACB
Chief and Director
Core Laboratory, Reference and Special High Complexity Testing Laboratories
Toxicology Laboratory, and ED-Laboratory
Chief, Molecular Diagnostics
Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio TX, USA

Roger L. Bertholf, PhD
Professor of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Weill Cornell Medicine
Medical Director of Clinical Chemistry
Houston Methodist Hospital 
Houston, TX, USA

Darci R. Block, PhD, DABCC
Consultant Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN, USA

Lynn A. Brunelle, PhD, DABCC
Operations Director
ALPCO
Boston, MA, USA

Allan C Deacon BSc, PhD, FRCPath
Consultant Clinical Scientist (Retired)
Bedford Hospital
Bedford, UK

Joe M. El-Khoury, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Co-Director, Clinical Chemistry
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine
Yale University
New Haven, CT, USA

David S. Hage, PhD
Hewett University Professor
Chemistry Department
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Lincoln, NE, USA

Roa Harb, MD
Director, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory
Yale New Haven Hospital
New Haven, CT, USA

Joshua Hayden, PhD
Joshua Hayden, PhD, DABCC, FACB
Chief of Chemistry
Norton Healthcare
Louisville, KY USA

Shannon Haymond, PhD
Director Clinical and Mass Spectrometry Laboratories
Northwestern University
Chicago, IL, USA

Paul Jannetto, PhD, DABCC, FAACC, M.T (ASCP)
Metals Laboratory Director
Clinical and Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Director
Clinical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Director
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN, USA

Paul Johnson, PhD, MBA, DABCC  
Assistant Professor
Department of Clinical Laboratory Science 
SUNY Upstate Medical University
Syracuse, NY, USA

Erin Kaleta, PhD, DABCC
Assistant Director
Clinical Chemistry Director
Infectious Disease Serology and Urinalysis
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale, AZ, USA 

Mark Albert Marzinke, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Associate Professor, Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Director, Preanalytics and General Chemistry, Johns Hopkins Hospital
Director, Clinical Pharmacology Analytical Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, MD, USA

Christopher McCudden, PhD, DABCC, NRCC, FAACC
Assistant Professor
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada

Robert Nerenz, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center
Lebanon, NH, USA

Rav Sodi, PhD, CSci, EuSpLM, FRCPath
Honorary Lecturer, Lancaster Medical School
University of Lancaster
Consultant Clinical Biochemist and Head of Department
Royal Lancaster Infirmary and Furness
General Hospital, UHMBT, Lancaster
Lancaster, UK

Christine Snozek, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Director of Chemistry
Co-director of Point-of-care Testing and Support Services
Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale, AZ, USA

Brenda Suh-Lailam, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Director of Clinical Chemistry and Point-of-Care Testing
Director of Quality, Department of Pathology
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chicago, IL, USA

Danyel Tacker, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Chemistry
West Virginia University Health Science Center and Hospital
Morgantown, WV, USA

Nicole V. Tolan, PhD, DABCC
Assistant Adjunct Professor in Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Tufts University School of Medicine
Director of Scientific and Medical Affairs
SCIEX Diagnostics
Boston, MA, USA

Ping Wang, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Director of Clinical Chemistry and Core Laboratory
Hospital of University of Pennsylvania
Associate Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA

TRANSFUSION MEDICINE

Kerry O'Brien, MD
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA, USA
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston, MA, USA

Karen Quillen, MD, MPH
Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine
Boston University School of Medicine
Boston, MA, USA

Edward Yoon, MD
Assistant Professor of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Lewis Katz School of Medicine
Associate Director - Blood Bank/Transfusion Medicine
Temple University Hospital
Philadelphia, PA, USA

LABORATORY GENOMICS

Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC
Chief and Director, Core Laboratory, Reference and Special High Complexity Testing Laboratories,
Toxicology Laboratory, and ED-Laboratory Chief, Molecular Diagnostics
Brooke Army Medical Center, 
San Antonio, TX, USA

Linnea Baudhuin, PhD, FACMG
Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN, USA

Anne B.S. Giersch, PhD, FACMG
Assistant Professor of Pathology,
Harvard Medical School
Associate Director of Cytogenetics,
Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA, USA

Christina Lockwood, PhD, DABCC, DABMGG
Associate Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine
Associate Director, Genetics and Solid Tumor Diagnostics Laboratory
Seattle, WA, USA

Heather Mason-Suares, PhD, FACMG
Assistant Professor of Pathology,
Harvard Medical School
Associate Director of Cytogenetics,
Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA, USA

Ann Moyer, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Co-Director, Personalized Genomics Laboratory
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN, USA

Christine Schmotzer, MD
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
Associate Division Chief, Clinical Pathology
Director of Clinical Chemistry, Immunology, and Point of Care Testing
University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Cleveland, OH, USA

Hoi-Ying (Elsie) Yu, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
System Director
Chemistry, Toxicology and Point-of-Care Testing
Danville, PA, USA

MICROBIOLOGY

Blake W. Buchan, PhD, D(ABMM)
Associate Professor, Dept. of Pathology
Medical College of Wisconsin
Associate Director, Clinical Microbiology
Wisconsin Diagnostic Laboratories
Milwaukee, WI, USA

Marc Roger Couturier, Ph.D., D(ABMM)
Associate Professor of Pathology
University of Utah
Medical Director
ARUP Laboratories
Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Derrick Chen, MD
Assistant Professor and Medical Director of Clinical Microbiology
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI, USA

Ingibjörg Hilmarsdottir, MD
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Medicine
University of Iceland
Consultant Microbiologist
Department of Microbiology
Landspitali-University Hospital of Iceland
Reykjavik, Iceland

Blaine Mathison, BS, M(ASCP)
ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology
ARUP Laboratories
Salt Lake City, UT, USA

HEMATOLOGY AND COAGULATION

Fiona Craig, MD
Professor Laboratory Medicine & Pathology,
Division Hematopathology,
Department Laboratory Medicine & Pathology,
Mayo Clinic Arizona,
Phoenix, AZ, USA

DISCLOSURE SUMMARY

All individuals involved in the planning, development and/or implementing this program were required to disclose whether they (or an immediate family member) have any relevant financial relationships with a commercial interest.

No individuals involved in the planning, development, and/or implementation of this program disclosed any relevant financial relationships, and no conflicts of interest were identified.