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Author and Module Information

All individuals involved in planning and developing the contents of this program were required to disclose whether they (or an immediate family member) have any financial relationships relevant to the contents of this educational activity. If any potential or real conflicts of interests were identified by the organizing committee, they were resolved prior to the program. The committee members’ disclosure information is provided below:

Planning Committee

Nader Rifai, PhD
Professor and Director of Clinical Chemistry
Boston Children's Hospital
Boston, MA

Christina Ellervik, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, Laboratory Medicine
Boston Children's Hospital

Drs. Ellervik and Rifai both disclosed no relevant financial relationships

Download the AACC Learning Lab Brochure

Authors, Disclosure Information, and Learning Objectives

Clinical Chemistry

ADRENAL CORTEX
Author Information:
Roger L. Bertholf, PhD
Medical Director of Clinical Chemistry
Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine
Houston Methodist Hospital
Weill Cornell Medicine
Houston, TX

Dr. Bertholf had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Identify the hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex and describe their function
  • Describe the physiological processes that regulate the production and secretion of adrenal hormones
  • Discuss the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, and distinguish the syndrome from Cushing disease
  • List several causes of adrenal insufficiency and describe its clinical symptoms
  • Select the appropriate laboratory tests to evaluate Cushing syndrome and adrenal insufficiency

BODY FLUIDS
Author Information:
Darci R. Block, PhD, DABCC
Consultant
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN

Dr. Block disclosed honorarium/expenses from AACC for a webinar on body fluid testing

Learning Objectives

  • Differentiate between standard and non-standard body fluids
  • Describe collection and handling of various body fluids
  • Describe anatomy, production, and composition of various body fluids in physiological and disease states
  • Describe clinical utility of various analytes in various body fluids
  • Interpret results from measurements of analytes in various body fluids
  • The fluids covered in the course are: serous, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, synovial, amniotic, cerebrospinal

CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY: DRUGS OF ABUSE
Author Information:
Shannon Haymond, PhD
Director
Clinical and Mass Spectrometry Laboratories
Northwestern University
Chicago, IL

Dr. Haymond had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Differentiate between forensic and therapeutic screening
  • Recall general legal regulations of drug screening
  • Describe and compare specimen types
  • Describe general principles for analytical methods of drug screening
  • Describe and interpret analytical methods for the following drugs of abuse:
    • acetaminophen
    • benzodiazepine
    • PCP
    • Marijuana
    • Opiates
    • Cocaine
    • Barbiturates

DISORDERS OF WATER, ELECTROLYTES AND ACID-BASE METABOLISM
Author Information:
Brenda Suh-Lailam, PhD, DABCC, FAACC
Director, Clinical Chemistry and Point-of-Care Testing
Director of Quality, Department of Pathology
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Assistant Professor of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

Dr. Suh-Lailam had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Recall the compartments of body water and composition of body fluids
  • Describe electrolyte disorders associated with sodium, potassium and chloride
  • Describe and evaluate laboratory findings in electrolyte disorders
  • Identify the causes of electrolyte disorders
  • Describe the differential diagnosis of electrolyte disorders
  • Recall use of Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in acid-base status evaluation
  • Describe the role of buffer systems in regulating the pH of body fluids
  • Describe the respiratory mechanism in the regulation of acid-base balance
  • Describe the renal mechanisms in the regulation of acid-base balance
  • Describe the primary acid-base disorders
  • Identify the causes for acid-base disorders
  • Describe and evaluate laboratory findings in acid-base disorders
  • Describe the compensatory responses in acid-base disorders
  • Assess the adequacy of compensation in acid-base disorders

LIVER DISEASE
Author Information:
Paul Johnson, PhD
Assistant Professor, Clinical Laboratory Science
Mayo Clinic of Medicine
Scottsdale, AZ

Dr. Johnson had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe micro- and macroscopic anatomical findings of the liver
  • Describe biochemical functions of the liver
  • Describe clinical features of various liver diseases
  • Describe pre-analytical and biological variation of liver biomarkers
  • Describe analytical principles for measurement of liver biomarkers
  • Describe inherited conditions of liver disease
  • Describe hepatobiliary disease
  • Describe hepatocellular disease
  • Describe hepatocellular carcinoma

MASS SPECTROMETRY
Author Information:
Erin Kaleta, PhD, DABCC
Clinical Director
Sonora Quest Laboratories
Tempe, AZ

Dr. Kaleta had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe basic concepts of mass spectrometry
  • Differentiate between hard and soft ionization
  • Differentiate between electron impact, electrospray, chemical, and desorption ionization techniques
  • Contrast the configurations of quadrupole, ion trap, and time of flight mass analyzers
  • Describe the practical use of various types of mass analyzers
  • Diagram a tandem mass spectrometer
  • Describe the function of each component of a tandem mass spectrometer
  • Contrast fixed and scanning mode configurations for ion selection
  • Describe sample preparation and introduction methods for mass analysis

METALS: TRACE AND TOXIC
Author Information:
Paul J. Jannetto, PhD, DABCC, FACB, MT (ASCP)
Director, Metals Laboratory
Director, Clinical and Forensic Toxicology Laboratory
Director, Clinical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN

Dr. Jannetto had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Recognize the common clinical signs and symptoms of deficiency or toxicity to essential, non- essential, and heavy elements
  • Identify the appropriate laboratory test/specimen matrix which should be ordered/collected to assess for elemental exposure or toxicity
  • Correctly interpret the elemental laboratory test results and suggest appropriate follow-up testing or care
  • Identify common sources of exposure to various elements

PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS
Author Information:
Danyel Tacker, PhD, DABCC, FACB
Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Chemistry
West Virginia University Health Science Center and Hospital
Morgantown, WV

Dr. Tacker had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Understand basic principles in electrophoretic separation
  • Discuss indicated uses for protein electrophoresis tests
  • Interpret protein electrophoretic patterns in health and disease states
  • Describing major pitfalls in electrophoretic separation

SERUM ENZYMES
Authors Information:
Christopher McCudden, PhD, DABCC, NRCC, FACB
Assistant Professor
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada

Dr. McCudden had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Danyel Tacker, PhD, DABCC, FACB
Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Chemistry
West Virginia University Health Science Center and Hospital
Morgantown, WV

Dr. Tacker had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the basic structure and function of enzymes
  • Recognize different enzymes naming conventions and nomenclature
  • Discuss the methods to measure clinically relevant enzymes
  • Identify clinically relevant serum enzymes
  • Discuss how serum enzymes are used to diagnose and manage disease

THERAPEUTIC DRUG MANAGEMENT I
Author Information:
Christine Snozek, PhD, DABCC, FACB
Director
Clinical Chemistry and Core Laboratory
Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale, AZ

Dr. Snozek had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the rational for therapeutic drug monitoring
  • Describe the principles of pharmacokinetics
  • Describe the preanalytical and analytical factors affecting drug measurement

THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS
Author Information:
Mark Albert Marzinke, PhD, DABCC, FACB
Director, Pre-analytical Chemistry and General Chemistry
The Johns Hopkins Hospital
Associate Professor of Pathology
Baltimore, MD

Dr. Marzinke had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the cytoarchitecture of the pancreas
  • Recall the digestive enzymes synthesized, stored, and secreted by the pancreas
  • Identify the components of pancreatic fluid, and its role in downstream digestion
  • Recognize the importance of pH in pancreatic enzyme activity
  • Describe how amylase and lipase are measured in the clinical laboratory setting
  • Stratify invasive and noninvasive tests to assess pancreatic function
  • Detail how laboratory tests can be used in the differential diagnosis of pancreatitis
  • Compare and contrast clinical presentation and laboratory findings associated with acute and chronic pancreatitis

THYROID
Author Information:
Robert Nerenz, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center
Lebanon, NH

Dr. Nerenz had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Understand basic pathophysiology of the thyroid gland
  • Describe basic biochemistry of the thyroid
  • Describe major sources of preanalytical and analytical error in thyroid testing
  • Understand analytical principles used for thyroid function testing
  • Interpret thyroid function testing results

TUMOR MARKERS
Author Information:
David Alter, MD DABCC
Clinical/Chemical Pathologist
Clinical Professor of Pathology MSU-CHM
Spectrum Health Regional Laboratory
Grand Rapids, MI

Dr. Alter had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Identify general tumor marker principles
  • Describe tumor marker validation
  • Describe clinical applications of tumor markers
  • Determine tumor markers used in breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreas cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer and testicular cancer

VITAMINS
Authors Information:
Rav Sodi, PhD, CSci, EuSpLM, FRCPath
Consultant Clinical Biochemist and Head of Department
Royal Lancaster Infirmary and Furness
General Hospital, UHMBT, Lancaster
Honorary Lecturer, Lancaster Medical School
University of Lancaster, United Kingdom

Dr. Sodi had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Lynn A. Brunelle, PhD, DABCC
Operations Director
ALPCO
Boston, MA

Dr. Brunelle had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Nicole V. Tolan, PhD, DABCC
Assistant Adjunct Professor in Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Tufts University School of Medicine
Director of Scientific and Medical Affairs
SCIEX Diagnostics
Boston, MA

Dr. Tolan disclosed grant/research support and salary/consultant fee from SCIEX and SCIEX (to BIDMC)

Learning Objectives

  • Classify vitamins based on solubility in water or fat
  • Recall common and chemical names and structure of all major vitamins
  • List common food sources of the vitamins
  • Describe the absorption, metabolism and functions of vitamins in the body
  • Describe classic diseases related to vitamin deficiency and their biochemical investigations
  • Describe vitamin toxicity and how to investigate this
  • List analytical principles for vitamins

VITAMIN D
Author Information:
Nicole Tolan, PhD
Instructor in Pathology
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston, MA

Dr. Tolan disclosed grant/research funds and consultant fees from Sciex

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the biochemistry of vitamin D
  • Describe major sources of preanalytical and analytical error in vitamin D testing
  • Understand methodologies used for vitamin D testing and their limitations
  • Interpret vitamin D results

Modules Under Development
Basic laboratory analytical techniques
Biological and preanalytical variability
Calculations
Cardiac biomarkers
Chromatography
Inborn errors of metabolism I
Inborn errors of metabolism II
Inborn errors of metabolism III
Laboratory Automation
Laboratory Management
Laboratory Safety
Lipids and lipoproteins
Nutrition
Pituitary function and pathophysiology
Point of care testing
Proteomics
Quality control of the examination process
Statistical methodologies in laboratory medicine
Therapeutic drugs and their management II

Modules to Be Developed
Amino acids, peptides, and proteins
Bone and mineral metabolism
Cathecolamines and serotonin
Gastrointestinal disorders
Laboratory Regulations
Pregnancy and its disorders
Quality management
Reproductive endocrinology

Transfusion Medicine

ACUTE TRANSFUSION REACTION
Author Information:
Kerry O'Brien, MD
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA

Dr. O’Brien disclosed salary/consultant fees from DynaMed

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the most common acute transfusion reactions seen in clinical practice
  • Detail the differential diagnosis of fever during or within 6 hours following completion of a blood product transfusion
  • Explain the diagnoses that should be considered when a patient suffers from difficulty breathing during or within 6 hours after blood product transfusion
  • Describe the mitigation steps that have resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)
  • Discuss when a transfusion reaction must be reported to the Food and Drug Administration and the steps one must take

BLOOD GROUPS AND PRETRANSFUSION TESTING
Authors Information:
Karen Quillen, MD, MPH
Professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine
Boston University School of Medicine
Boston, MA

Kerry O'Brien, MD
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA

Dr. O’Brien disclosed salary/consultant fees from DynaMed

Learning Objectives

  • Detail the pretransfusion compatibility tests required prior to blood product transfusion
  • Detail the different types of red blood cell crossmatch available and benefits of each
  • Discuss the importance of the ABO blood groups system and know the red blood cell and plasma compatibility charts for transfusion
  • Explain why the Rh blood group system is so immunogenic
  • Detail the most clinically relevant facts of the Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group systems
  • Discuss the importance of specialized (Rh and Kell) matching prior to transfusion in patients with sickle cell anemia
  • Discuss the results of failing to detect a clinically significant red cell alloantibody prior to transfusion of red blood cells

HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN
Author Information:
Kerry O'Brien, MD
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA

Dr. O’Brien disclosed salary/consultant fees from DynaMed

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the pathophysiology of HDFN and which patients are most at risk for HDFN
  • Describe the usual ABO groups involved in HDFN due to ABO antibodies and the difference between ABO HDFN and HDFN from other IgG antibodies
  • Describe the critical titer of anti-D as it pertains to HDFN
  • Detail the history of Rh immune globulin, its clinical utility, its mechanism of action, how it is dose and when it should be given to women at risk of HDFN due to anti-D
  • Discuss the methodology and indications for the rosette test, the Kleihauer-Betke test and flow cytometry in assessing for fetomaternal hemorrhage
  • Discuss whether women with weak D and partial D mutations are candidates for Rh immune globulin
  • Explain why anti-K HDFN differs from all other types of HDFN and how one would monitor the at-risk patient
  • Discuss when and how an antibody titration procedure is performed in a pregnant woman
  • Describe the clinical presentation of HDFN
  • Detail the antenatal management of pregnancies at risk for HDFN including the use of middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasonography, fetal blood sampling, and intrauterine transfusion
  • Describe the post-delivery management of neonates afflicted with HDFN including the use of neonatal intravenous immunoglobulin, phototherapy, and red cell exchange transfusion

PLATELET TRANSFUSION
Author Information:
Kerry O'Brien, MD
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA

Dr. O’Brien disclosed salary/consultant fees from DynaMed

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the platelet products currently available for transfusion in the United States
  • Detail the particular storage conditions and shelf-life that make platelets a very limited resource
  • Reveal the clinical benefits of prestorage leukoreduction and irradiation of platelets
  • Discuss the platelet transfusion thresholds in adults that have been published by the AABB (formerly the American Association of Blood Banks)
  • Explain the platelet transfusion thresholds in the pediatric population
  • Detail the contraindications to platelet transfusion
  • Describe the immune and non-immune causes of platelet refractoriness
  • Detail the laboratory evaluation for platelet refractoriness
  • Discuss the management of the thrombocytopenic patient with alloimmune platelet refractoriness due to HLA antibodies

PLASMA PRODUCTS AND DERIVATIVES
Author Information:
Kerry O'Brien, MD
Medical Director Blood Bank and
Clinical Pathology Residency Program Director
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA

Dr. O’Brien disclosed salary/consultant fees from DynaMed

Learning Objectives

  • Detail the various plasma products available in the United States for transfusion
  • Detail the indications for plasma transfusion in adult and pediatric patients
  • Discuss the dosing of plasma products in adult and pediatric patients when used to correct multiple factor deficiencies
  • Discuss the indications for cryoprecipitate transfusion in adult and pediatric patients
  • Detail how cryoprecipitate is processed from whole blood collections
  • Explain how cryoprecipitate is dosed when used for fibrinogen replacement in adult and pediatric patients
  • Discuss the clinical indications for infusion of the most common plasma derivatives to include albumin, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), prothrombin complex concentrates, antithrombin III, von WIllebrand factor, and fibrinogen concentrate

THERAPEUTIC APHERESIS
Author Information:
Edward Yoon, MD
Assistant Professor of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Lewis Katz School of Medicine
Associate Director - Blood Bank/Transfusion Medicine
Temple University Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Yoon had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe basic principles of apheresis technology
  • Detail replacement fluids and anticoagulation
  • Identify current guidelines for therapeutic apheresis
  • Understand periprocedural clinical considerations
  • Know plasma exchange (plasmapheresis)
  • Explain plasma exchange in idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
  • Understand plasma exchange in Myasthenia Gravis
  • Describe red cell exchange (Erythrocytapheresis)
  • Describe red cell exchange in sickle cell disease
  • Identify white blood cell depletion (Leukocytapheresis)
  • Identify platelet depletion (Thrombocytapheresis)

Modules Under Development
Plasma components and derivatives

Modules to Be Developed
Blood donation
Delayed transfusion reactions
Testing for blood donors
Transfusion support for hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

Laboratory Genomics

CELL-FREE DNA IN PRENATAL SCREENING
Author Information:
Christina Lockwood, PhD, DABCC, DABMGG
Associate Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine
Associate Director, Genetics and Solid Tumor Diagnostics Laboratory
Seattle, WA

Dr. Lockwood had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Understand the biological sources of cell-free DNA
  • Recognize the technologies available for cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Describe the clinical utility of cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Know the general performance characteristics for cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy tests (sensitivity, positive predictive value, etc)
  • Identify challenges associated with cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • Compare cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening with traditional prenatal screening
  • Understand that incidental findings may arise from cell-free DNA prenatal aneuploidy screening
  • List future applications of cell-free DNA in prenatal tests

INHERIT CANCERS I: MECHANISMS AND GENETIC INSTABILITY SYNDROMES
Author Information:

Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC
Chief and Director, Core Laboratory, Reference and Special High Complexity Testing Laboratories,
Toxicology Laboratory, and ED-Laboratory Chief, Molecular Diagnostics
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, TX

Dr. Abadie had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • List characteristics of inherited cancers that differentiate them from sporadic cancers
  • Describe epigenetic changes that can lead to inherited cancers
  • Explain roles for caretaker and gatekeeper genes in the pathogenesis of inherited cancers.
  • Identify inherited cancer syndromes that are caused by genetic instability mechanisms.

INHERIT CANCERS II: DOMINANT INGERITANCE MODULE OF CANCER SYNDROMES
Author Information:

Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC
Chief and Director, Core Laboratory, Reference and Special High Complexity Testing Laboratories,
Toxicology Laboratory, and ED-Laboratory Chief, Molecular Diagnostics
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, TX

Dr. Abadie had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss how dominant inheritance models of cancer syndromes can be used for risk assessment and prognosis determination
  • Identify common mutation and mutation hot-spots for inherited cancers
  • Differentiate among various inherited cancer syndromes in terms of phenotypic presentations and disease course

HEREDITARY NEURONAL AND MUSCULAR DISORDERS
Author Information:

Jude M. Abadie, PhD, DABCC(C&T), FAACC
Chief and Director, Core Laboratory, Reference and Special High Complexity Testing Laboratories,
Toxicology Laboratory, and ED-Laboratory Chief, Molecular Diagnostics
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, TX

Dr. Abadie had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the pathogenesis of neuronal genetic disorders related to copper and iron dysregulation
  • Explain genetic consequences of mutations that lead to neurometabolic disorders
  • Identify genetic lesions that lead to different muscular dystrophies and their phenotypic consequences

NUCLEIC ACID ISOLATION
Author Information:
Linnea Baudhuin, PhD
Associate professor
Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Rochester, MN

Dr. Baudhuin had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Recall the major steps involved in nucleic acid isolation
  • Discuss overcoming issues with difficult sample types during nucleic acid isolation
  • Detail different reagents and approaches involved with cell lysis and nucleic acid separation
  • Compare similarities and differences between DNA and RNA extraction
  • Describe different types of liquid phase nucleic acid extraction
  • Recall details about the different methods for solid phase nucleic acid extraction
  • Discuss measurement and optimization of nucleic acid quantity and quality

NUCLEIC ACID TECHNIQUES
Author Information:
Christine Schmotzer, MD
Associate Division Chief, Clinical Pathology
Director of Clinical Chemistry, Immunology, and Point of Care Testing
University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Assistant Professor of Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

Dr. Schmotzer had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Identify enzymes used in nucleic acid methods
  • Nucleic acid treatments not involving enzymes
  • Amplification and PCR basics
  • Real-time PCR
  • PCR variants and non-PCR amplification techniques
  • Quality assurance for nucleic acid techniques

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF MENDELIAN INHERIT DISORDERS
Author Information:
Ann Moyer, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Co-Director, Personalized Genomics Laboratory
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, MN

Dr. Moyer had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Recall definitions of basic terms used in genetics
  • Recognize inheritance patterns of common Mendelian disorders
  • Compare and contrast inheritance patterns
  • Determine which inheritance pattern is most likely based on a pedigree
  • Review clinical and genetic characteristics of common Mendelian disorders
  • Describe the process of X-inactivation and its implications
  • Demonstrate knowledge of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Bayes Theorem

PHARMACOGENETICS
Author Information:
Hoi-Ying (Elsie) Yu, PhD, DABCC, FACB
System Director
Chemistry, Toxicology and Point-of-Care Testing
Danville, PA

Learning Objectives

  • Identify different types of pharmacogenetic targets and understand how medications can be affected by genes
  • Recall the specific role of pharmacogenetics in certain cancer treatments
  • Define the specific roles of pharmacogenetics in pain management
  • Recall details about cardiovascular-related pharmacogenetics
  • Describe examples for psychiatry-related pharmacogenetics
  • Describe HLA genes that impact drug hypersensitivity
  • Recall clinical benefits and limitations of pharmacogenetic testing

Modules Under Development
Genomes and variants
Genomics of hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies
Hereditary neurodegenerative and neurodevelopment disorders
Hereditary renal disorders
Mitochondrial genetics
Molecular immunology
Non-Mendelian disorders
Quantitative and computational approaches to genomic interpretation
Sequencing-based techniques
Solid tumor genomics

Modules to Be Developed
Blood-based cancer detection
Cancer Genetics Concepts and Laboratory Testing
Congenital hearing loss
Foundational Molecular Biology
Hereditary cardiovascular disorders
Hereditary dermatologic disorders
Hereditary endocrine disorders
Hereditary hematologic disorders
Hereditary pulmonary disorders
Hereditary skeletal disorders
Liquid Biopsy
Molecular determination of identity

Microbiology

FUNGAL DIAGNOSTICS
Author Information:
Ingibjorg Hilmarsdottir, MD
Consultant microbiologist
Department of Microbiology
Landspitali-University Hospital of Iceland
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Medicine
University of Iceland
Reykjavik, Iceland
Dr. Ingibjorb had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • List principal fungal pathogens in the respiratory tract
  • Evaluate the morphological appearance and identification of hyaline septate molds in clinical specimens
  • Recognize the morphological appearance of Histoplasma capsulatum in clinical specimens
  • Identify yeasts that are inhibited by cycloheximide in culture
  • Evaluate the importance of species identification for dermatophytes
  • Explain the purpose of pretreatment of filamentous fungi before transfer to a MALDI-TOF-MS plate
  • Identify common technical challenges that are particular to fungal DNA detection in clinical specimens
  • Recall the sensitivity of blood cultures for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis
  • Recall the sensitivity of serum cryptococcal antigen detection for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis
  • Evaluate methods for the diagnosis of sporotrichosis

FUNGI
Author Information:
Ingibjorg Hilmarsdottir, MD
Consultant microbiologist
Department of Microbiology
Landspitali-University Hospital of Iceland
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Medicine
University of Iceland
Reykjavik, Iceland
Dr. Ingibjorb had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe common types of thallic conidiogenesis in septate filamentous fungi
  • Recognize the relevance of cryptic species among fungi
  • Describe the morphological features of Paecilomyces and Purpureocillium
  • Describe the microstructures of the Aspergillus conidial head
  • Differentiate microscopic features of Cladosporium from those of Cladophialophora
  • Describe the morphological features of Microsporum canis
  • Describe the morphological features of granular variants of Trichophyton rubrum
  • Describe the morphological features of Talaromyces marneffei
  • Describe the spore-forming structures of the Mucorales fungi
  • Describe the morphology and staining properties of microsporidia

MYCOBACTERIA AND DIAGNOSTICS
Author Information:
Derrick Chen, MD
Assistant Professor and Medical Director of Clinical Microbiology
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI

Dr. Chen had no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Learning Objectives

  • Describe general microbiological characteristics of mycobacteria and how they differ from other bacteria
  • Review different staining methods that are used to microscopically visualize mycobacteria
  • Understand which specimen types may be used for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection
  • Know how mycobacteria are cultured, including unique processing and safety requirements
  • Determine how mycobacteria are identified using phenotypic and molecular methods
  • Identify uses and limitations of immunological and antigen tests
  • Summarize antimicrobial susceptibility testing of mycobacteria

Modules Under Development
Antifungals
Bacterial infections
Biosafety
Fungal infections
Mycobacterial infections & antimycobacterials
Parasites
Parasitic infections and antiparasitics
Parasitic diagnostics
Viruses
Viral diagnostics
Viral infections & antivirals

Modules to Be Developed
Antibacterials
Antimicrobial susceptibility
Bacteria
Bacterial diagnostics
Infection surveillance
Infectious syndromes
Laboratory management

Hematology and Coagulation

Modules Under Development
Flow cytometry immunophenotyping
Laboratory diagnosis of disorders of bleeding and thrombosis including platelets
Lymph node pathology: normal, reactive, malignant and metastatic
Myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and hybrid disorders
Normal and abnormal peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology

Modules to Be Developed
Acute myeloid leukemia
Anemia (microcytic/normocytic/macrocytic and hemolytic/hypoproliferative)
Automated hematology and general approach to the peripheral blood smear
Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of hematolymphoid disorders, both benign and malignant
Hemoglobin electrophoresis/HPLC
Hemoglobinopathies, thalassemias, and RBC cytoskeletal and enzyme defects
Histiocytic and dendritic cell disorders (not just neoplasms)
Hodgkin lymphoma
Lymphoproliferative disorders associated with primary and iatrogenic immune deficiency
Mature B-cell neoplasms
Mature T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms
Precursor lymphoid neoplasms (B and T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma)
Spleen and thymus: neglected organs in hematopathology
White blood cell abnormalities (quantitative and qualitative)

Clinical Immunology

Modules to Be Developed
Allergic Disease
Monoclonal Gammopathies
Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases
Primary Immunodeficiencies
Systemic Autoimmune Diseases