A 23-year-old man presented to the emergency department with thigh and flank pain. His medical history was unremarkable. Serum test results included the following: aspartate aminotransferase, 4007 U/L (reference interval, 11–47 U/L); alanine aminotransferase, 715 U/L (reference interval, 7–53 U/L); alkaline phosphatase, 67 U/L (reference interval, 38–126 U/L); lactate dehydrogenase, 6150 U/L (reference interval, 100–250 U/L); creatinine, 1.6 mg/dL (141 μmol/L) [reference interval, 0.7–1.3 mg/dL (62–115 μmol/L)]. A urine sample (Fig. 1) was also collected at the time of presentation.
- What conditions might cause urine to have this appearance?
- What laboratory tests might be useful for patients with dark brown urine?
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