A 32-year-old man with an unremarkable medical history presented to the ambulatory clinic with complaints of nonlocalized abdominal pain. The results of a physical examination were unremarkable. The results obtained from liver, pancreatic, and renal testing were within the reference intervals, and the results of both a fecal occult blood test and an investigation for parasites in the stool were negative. Laboratory investigations also revealed a plasma carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) concentration of 3103 IU/mL (reference interval, 2–40 IU/mL). After this finding, abdominal ultrasonography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging evaluations were made.

Questions

  1. Is CA19–9 increased only in malignancy?
  2. What nonmalignant conditions can give rise to increased plasma CA19–9?

Read the article here for the answers.